Termites, often known for their reputation as destructive pests, have a diet that is central to their ecological significance and their impact on human structures. Primarily feeders on cellulose, termites contribute to the decomposition of organic matter and nutrient recycling in ecosystems. However, their appetite for cellulose also leads them to consume and damage man-made structures, causing considerable economic loss. This article delves into the diet of termites to provide an in-depth understanding of what they really eat.

Cellulose: The Main Component

Cellulose, the most abundant organic polymer on Earth, found in the cell walls of plants, is the primary component of a termite’s diet. Termites have adapted to feed on cellulose and extract nutrients from it, which is remarkable considering many other organisms cannot digest this complex carbohydrate. The key to this ability lies in their unique digestive system.

The Digestive System and Symbiotic Microorganisms

Termites possess a highly efficient, symbiotic digestive system. Their gut harbors a rich microbial community, including bacteria and protozoa, that breaks down cellulose into simpler compounds that the termite can then absorb and utilize. This symbiotic relationship allows termites to extract nutrients from materials that many other organisms cannot.

Wood and Other Cellulosic Materials

Wood, being rich in cellulose, is a favorite meal for termites, leading to their infamous reputation as wood-destroyers. They consume both dead trees and wooden structures in human habitats, such as houses and furniture. However, their diet is not limited to just wood.

Termites also feed on other materials that contain cellulose. This can include leaf litter, soil organic matter, dung, and even certain types of fungi. The specific diet can vary depending on the termite species and its natural habitat.

Diet Variations Among Termite Species

There is considerable diversity in termite diets among different species. Subterranean termites, which live underground, primarily feed on cellulose in soil organic matter and leaf litter but will readily consume wood in contact with the soil. Drywood termites, on the other hand, can infest and feed on dry, sound wood, such as that found in human structures.

Dampwood termites, true to their name, prefer wood with high moisture content, often found in decaying logs and stumps. Meanwhile, some termite species, like the fungus-growing Macrotermitinae, cultivate and consume a special type of fungus as their primary food source.

Dietary Implications on Termite Control

Understanding the termite diet is crucial for effective termite control. Since termites are attracted to cellulose, any wood or cellulose-containing materials can potentially attract termites. Therefore, homeowners should avoid direct wood-to-soil contact and store firewood or wood debris away from the home.

In termite control, bait stations often contain cellulose materials treated with a slow-acting insecticide or growth regulator. These baits exploit the termite’s dietary habits to distribute the control agent throughout the colony.


The diet of termites, primarily consisting of cellulose, underpins their ecological role as decomposers and their status as significant pests. Their ability to consume and derive nutrients from cellulose-rich materials, thanks to their unique, symbiotic digestive system, allows them to thrive in diverse habitats.

While their dietary habits can lead to significant economic losses in human structures, they also play an essential role in breaking down dead plant material and recycling nutrients in natural ecosystems. As we continue to develop strategies to control their destructive impact, we must also appreciate the ecological role that their diet enables them to play.

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